miércoles, 1 de diciembre de 2010

Post Modernism

The victorian age is characterized as practical and materialistic, most of the writers exalt a purely ideal life. It is an idealistic age where the great ideals like truth, justice, love, brotherhood are emphasized by poets, essayists and novelists of the age, Literature of this age tends to come closer to daily life which reflects its practical problems and interests. It becomes a powerful instrument for human progress and the post modernism features advanced science and information technology/cybernetics, it proposes a radical change in the social order. There cannot be one or objective reality.

Some characteristics of the modernist literature are Realistic embodiment of social meanings, Sense of spiritual loneliness, Sense of frustration,Two World Wars' effects on Humanity.
The post.modernism emphasis dreams, drug use, paranoia, no heroes but heroic acts, honesty, constancy and kindness.

jueves, 4 de noviembre de 2010

Modernist Literature

1. Seven Pillars of Wisdom and Scapegoats of the Empire.

2. In Seven Pillars of Wisdom we can read about the personal war experience of the writter and in the Scapegoats of the Empire talks about the experience of the writter in the war and when he was prisoner. Both books were written round 1900-1960 when the period of Modernist Literature was trendy. Some THEMATICS CHARACTERICS of the modernist literature are Realistic embodiment of social meanings, Sense of spiritual loneliness, Sense of frustration,Two World Wars' effects on Humanity , in those books we can found those thematics.


3. I think they are a good example of the modernist literature, because they are pessimistic, urban and negative, for example here we have few lines about “Scapegoats of the Empire”:

When I arrived in Australia, I found that the grossest misrepresentations had been made by those primarily responsible for the manner of the warfare which "staggered humanity," and that they had succeeded in linking the name of Australia with the most tragic and odious incidents connected with a mercenary and inglorious war.

And about “Seven pillars of Wisdom” and its way to see the love:

I loved you, so I drew these tides of men into my hands
and wrote my will across the sky in stars
To gain you Freedom, the seven-pillared worthy house,
that your eyes might be shining for me
When I came.

4. No, definitely not, because this kina of book goes down people and shows the worst part of the humanity and the World.

jueves, 16 de septiembre de 2010

Victorian Literature..

Answer the following questions on your blog.
01. Which 2 readings did you select from the list?

I chose The legend of The Sleepy Hollow , by Irving, W and Heart of Darkness, by Conrad Joseph


02. Using these readings, compare (3 examples) and contrast (3 examples) the works with the ppt presentations on Victorian Literature and Culture given in class.

Comparissions and Contrasts:

1. Literature of this age tends to come closer to daily life which reflects its practical problems and interests. It becomes a powerful instrument for human progress.

Example of Comparission: “In this by-place of nature there abode, in a remote period of American history, that is to say, some thirty years since, a worthy wight of the name of Ichabod Crane,….”

Ex. of Contrast: And farther west on the upper reaches the place of the monstrous town was still marked ominously on the sky, a brooding gloom in sunshine, a lurid glare under the stars.
"And this also," said Marlow suddenly, "has been one of the dark places of the earth."

2. The age is characterized as practical and materialistic, most of the writers exalt a purely ideal life. It is an idealistic age where the great ideals like truth, justice, love, brotherhood are emphasized by poets, essayists and novelists of the age.


Example of Comparission: I would not have it imagined, however, that he was one of those cruel potentates of the school who joy in the smart of their subjects; on the contrary, he administered justice with discrimination rather than severity; taking the burden off the backs of the weak, and laying it on those of the strong….

Ex of Contrast: The Nellie, a cruising yawl, swung to her anchor without a flutter of the sails, and was at rest. The flood had made, the wind was nearly calm, and being bound down the river, the only thing for it was to come to and wait for the turn of the tide.


3. Idealism: It is often considered as an age of doubt and pessimism. The influence of science is felt here. The whole age seems to be caught in the conception of man in relation to the universe with the idea of evolution.

Example of Comparission: The schoolmaster is generally a man of some importance in the female circle of a rural neighborhood; being considered a kind of idle, gentlemanlike personage, of vastly superior taste and accomplishments to the rough country swains, and, indeed, inferior in learning only to the parson.

Ex. of Contrast: The day was ending in a serenity of still and exquisite brilliance. The water shone pacifically; the sky, without a speck, was a benign immensity of unstained light; the very mist on the Essex marsh was like a gauzy and radiant fabric...


03. Do you feel that the readings you completed are very good or excellent examples of Victorian Literature? Why/Why not?

Yes, they were excellent examples , because in each line you can see that the social unrest, social status , science, the appearance, etc, were the most important things in this period.


04. Would you recommend these readings to your friends and family? Why/Why not

Absollutely yes, because they will notice how the Victorian Life was, and how the people lived. As well, they will know what things were important to those people.

domingo, 4 de julio de 2010

Wars of Roses !!!




1. Define and explain, The Great Vowel Shift.
It was a major change in the pronunciation of the English language that took place in the south of England between 1450 and 1750.

2. Name 5 dialects of Modern English.
-Cameroon English, -Australian English,-Guyanese English,-Jamaican English,-Canadian English.

3. One of the problems with Early Modern English was a lack of uniformity in spelling. Which 2 people (1-English, 1-American) helped establish standardized spelling?
Early Modern English lacked uniformity in spelling, but Samuel Johnson's dictionary, published in 1755 in England, was influential in establishing a standard form of spelling. Noah Webster did the same in America, publishing his dictionary in 1828; see American and British English spelling differences.

4. How many countries in the world have given Modern English official status?
The Sovereign states that have given to Modern English official status are: 56 aprox.

5. The most recent statistics show that approximately how many people speak Modern English as a:I. First language? II. Second Language?
I. First language: 309–400 million
II. Second language: 199–1,400 million
Overall: 500 million–1.8 billion
6. When was Early Modern English spoken?
The Early Modern English was spoken since the latter half of the 15th century to 1650.

7. How are the use of Pronouns different between Early Modern & Modern English?
In Early Modern English, there were two second person personal pronouns: thou, the informal singular pronoun, and ye, which was both the plural pronoun and the formal singular pronoun, (like modern French tu and vous and modern German du and ihr). (Thou was already falling out of use in the Early Modern English period, but remained customary for addressing God and certain other solemn occasions and sometimes for addressing inferiors.)
Like other personal pronouns, thou and ye had different forms depending on their grammatical case; specifically, the objective form of thou was thee, its possessive forms were thy and thine, (compare modern German; thou - du, thee - dich, thine - dein); and its reflexive or emphatic form was thyself, while the objective form of ye was you, its possessive forms were your and yours, and its reflexive or emphatic forms were yourself and yourselves.
In other respects, the pronouns were much the same as today. One difference is that my and thy became mine and thine before words beginning with a vowel and letter h; thus, mine eyes, thine hand, and so on.
In modern English, we can see the disuse of the T-V distinction (thou, ye). The use of auxiliary verbs becomes mandatory in interrogative sentences and the rise and fall of prescriptive grammarians.

8. Which language families does Modern English belong in?
Indo-European, Germanic, West Germanic, Anglo–Frisian, Anglic.

9. Name 4 worldwide uses for Modern English.
United Kingdom, Ireland, Canada, United States of America between others.

10. In your opinion, what was the greatest influence on the spread of Modern English around the world? Why?
In my opinion, the greatest influence on the spread of modern English and not only on english but also on every language that once have been important, just like Latin and French, is that a language become global because of the country’s development on politic, military, monetary power and migration of people to the United States from others countries. The reason about migrations was the World War I and World War II it allowed the spread of the language for the people, people became to use the language to communicate and some words keep in others cultures finally also the speed of communication and rapprochement of countries for political reasons has fostered economic need for a global language.

11. There has been a lot of controversy over the true authorship of Shakespeare's writings. Which 3 people are also candidates as the possible authors of Shakespeare's plays?
The 3 candidates as the possible authors of Shakespeare’s plays are Francis Bacon,Christopher Marlowe and Edward de Vere.

12. Briefly explain The Oxfordian Theory.
The case for Oxford's authorship is based on perceived similarities between Oxford's biography and events in Shakespeare's plays and sonnets; parallels of language, idiom, and thought between Oxford's letters and the Shakespearean canon; and underlined passages in Oxford's Bible that may correspond to quotations in Shakespeare's plays.

13. Shakespeare wrote 38 plays, which according to the Folio Classification, fall into 3 categories. Name the 3 categories.
The categories are:
Comedies
Histories
Tragedies
These are not including two plays that are: The Two Noble Kinsmen and Pericles, Prince of Tyre.

14. In which town was Shakespeare born?
He was born in Stratford-Upon-Avon.

15. Which famous London theatre (built by actors, for actors) is connected with Shakespeare's plays?
The Globe Theatre

16. Even though Richard III is the most performed play, Hamlet is Shakespeare's most famous play. In your opinion, what does this portion of Hamlet's famous soliloquy mean:
To be or not to be, that is the question;
Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer
The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune,
Or to take arms against a sea of troubles,
And by opposing, end them.
To die, to sleep;
No more; and by a sleep to say we end
The heart-ache and the thousand natural shocks
That flesh is heir to — 'tis a consummation
Devoutly to be wish'd.
To die, to sleep;
To sleep, perchance to dream.
Ay, there's the rub...
In my opinion this portion mean that Hamlet wants to express who really he is or who must to be, when he said to die, to sleep, maybe wants to said that he wish die for to show for who he really is, or just sleep and leave everything in the same way.

17. Name 5 post-Shakespearean artists whose work was heavily influenced by the writings of William Shakespeare.
William Shakespeare influenced novelist such Thomas Hardy, William Faulkner and Charles Dickens. Herman Melville wrote soliloquies like Shakespeare. Some pieces of music are inspired in some works of Shakespeare, like; Othello and Falstaff. Shakespeare inspires painters to such; Henry Fuseli, and even the psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud drew on Shakespeare psychology his theories about human nature.

18. Which of Shakespeare's plays are included in The Wars of the Roses series?
The plays are:
Richard II
Henry IV, part 1 and 2.
Henry V
Henry VI, part 1, 2 and 3.
Richard III

19. Shakespeare wrote most of his works in blank verse composed in iambic pentameter. What is blank verse & iambic pentameter?
Blank verse is a type of poetry, distinguish by having a regular meter, but not rhyme. The meter most commonly used with blank verse has been iambic pentameter
Iambic pentameter is a commonly used metrical line in traditional verse and verse drama. The iambic pentameter describes the particular rhythm that the words establish in that line. That rhythm is measured in small groups of syllables; these small groups of syllables are called "feet". The word "iambic" describes the type of foot that is used. The word "pentameter" indicates that a line has five of these "feet".

20. Name 4 actors from Shakepeare's original company.
William Kempe, Richard Burbage,Henry Condell and John Heminges.

21. What were the Wars of the Roses (1377-1485)?
The wars were a series of dynastic civil wars for the throne of England, fought between supporters of two rival branches of the Royal House of Plantagenet: the houses of Lancaster (red rose) and York (White rose).

22. - Why was this war called the Wars of the Roses?
The Wars of the Roses called like this because the house of York and the house of Lancaster. Both had a rose in their royal badges. As I mentioned before, The White rose for the house of York and the red rose for the house of Lancaster.

23. - What were the names of the 2 houses which fought in this war?
The house of Lancaster
The house of York


24. - What prompted this civil war of the houses of rose to begin?
Following the early death of Edward III, there was a series of wars between the descendants of two Edward III's younger sons: the Duke of Lancaster and the Duke of York because they wanted the throne of England.

25. - How did the war end?
After many battles a period of comparative peace followed, but Edward died unexpectedly in 1483. His surviving brother Richard of Gloucester first moved to prevent the unpopular Woodville family of Edward's widow from participating in government during the minority of Edward's son, Edward V, and then seized the throne for himself, using the suspect legitimacy of Edward IV's marriage as pretext. Henry Tudor, a distant relative of the Lancastrian kings who had inherited their claim, overcame and defeated Richard at Bosworth in 1485. He was crowned Henry VII, and married Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV, to unite and reconcile the two houses.

26. - Which Kings of England were participants in the wars of the Roses?
House of York
Henry IV (1399 - 1413)
House of Lancaster
Edward IV (1461 - 1483)

miércoles, 12 de mayo de 2010

Middle English


1. Approximately when was Middle English spoken?

Middle English was spoken between the late 11th century up to appriximately the 16 century.

2. What were the major factors which led to the development and the spread of Middle English?

The diversity of forms in written Middle English may signify neither greater variety of spoken forms of English than could be found in pre-Conquest England, nor a faithful representation of contemporary spoken English.This diversity suggests the gradual end of the role of Wessex as a focal point and trend-setter for scribal activity, and the emergence of more distinct local scribal styles and written dialects, and a general pattern of transition of activity over the centuries that follow.

3. Match the following Old English words with their Anglo-Norman equivalent:
A. Pig = Pork
B. Cow = Beef
C. Wood = Forest
D. Sheep = Mutton
E. House = Mansion
F. Worthy = Honourable
G. Bold = Courageous

4- Compare & contrast the structure of nouns, pronouns and verbs, between Middle English & Modern English.

The contrast of these kind of words is that they are simplified , the grammar of Middle English is much closer to that of modern English than that of Old English. Compared to other Germanic languages, it is probably most similar to that of modern Dutch.

5-How is pronunciation different between Middle English and Modern English?

All letters in Middle English words were pronounced. (Silent letters in Modern English come from pronunciation shifts, which means that pronunciation is no longer closely reflected by the written form.) Therefore 'knight' was pronounced [kniçt] (with a pronounced and the as the in German 'Knecht'), not [naɪt] as in Modern English.

6- What is the Chancery Standard, and how did it come into effect?

Chancery Standard was a written form of English used by government bureaucracy and for other official purposes from the late 15th century. It is believed to have contributed in a significant way to the development of the English language as spoken and written today. Because of the differing dialects of English spoken and written across the country at the time, the government needed a clear and unambiguous form for use in its official documents. Chancery Standard was developed to meet this need.

7. Who wrote the Canterbury Tales?

Geoffrey Chaucer at the end of the 14th century.

8. Describe the medieval pilgrims who journeyed from Canterbury to London.

The pilgrimage was a very prominent feature of medieval society. Pilgrims would frequently journey to cathedrals that preserved relics of saints. They believed that such relics had miraculous powers. Pilgrimages also represented the mortal journey to heaven through the struggles of mortal life.

9. Why did the pilgrims take this journey?

They wend their way to Canterbury from every shire of England to seek the holy blessed martyr, Thomas Becket, who has helped them when they were sick.


10. It is thought that some of the stories in The Canterbury Tales originated in Italy. What was the name of the Italian book and who wrote it?

The Canterbury Tales were written in Middle English, specifically in a dialect associated with London and spellings associated with the then emergent chancery standard. Although no manuscript of the Tales exists in Chaucer's own hand, two were copied around the time of his death by Adam Pinkhurst.

11. The Canterbury Tales is considered an extremely important book, both in terms of English Literature & in the history of English writing. In your opinion, why is this book so important?

It's important because it gave to the English Language, the main root of words from Old English to now. Beside that The Canterbury Tale contributed in terms of culture and history.

12. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight is:
It is a detailed explanation of the proper etiquette & behaviour for all knights in Medieval Europe.

13. Who is Sir Gawain?
He was a knight of King Arthur´s round table.

14. What is the challenge that The Green Knight proposes to the Knights of the Round Table?
The Green Knight offers to allow anyone to strike him with his axe if the challenger will take a return blow in a year and a day.

15. What is the similarity between Sir Gawain and the Green Knight and the Irish tale of Cúchulainn?
In this Irish tale of Cúchulainn parallels Gawain in that, like The Green Knight Cú Chulainn´s antagonist feints three blows with the axe before letting his target depart without injury.

16. What is the importance of the pentagram/pentangle in the poem?
The pentagle symbolizes the virtues to which Gawain aspires such as to be faultless in his five senses; never to fail in his five fingers; to be faithful to the five wounds that Christ received on the cross; to be strengthened by five joys that the Virgin Mary had in Jesus; and to possess brotherly love, courtesy, piety, and chastity.
The importance of the pentangle in this poem is that.

17. How are numbers used to symbolize events in the poem?
The poet highlights number symbolism to add symmetry and meaning to the poem.

18. What is the significance of Sir Gawain's neck wound?
Gawain´s wound is an outward sign of an internal wound.

19. Which actor played The Green Knight in the film adaptation, Sword of the Valiant?
Tha actor who played The Green Knight in that film was Sean Connery.

20. In many ways this poem is, in the modern sense, a soap opera. Compare Sir Gawain and the Green Knight with a modern Chilean teleseries.
I can compare this poem with Miguel Carrera soap opera which is a Chilean teleserie, fighting for all those values or virtues encountered in Sir Gawain and The Green Knight poem.

miércoles, 28 de abril de 2010

Midterm assignment:

A lucky girl.

She was born in a private hospital, with all the atention that somebody would wish…
But she had some problems as everybody have it. She had dislexia, her sister was very jealous at her and her brother left the house too many years ago. However, she had a lucky parents, her mother was business manager and her father a teacher.
One day she decided to travel abroad Chile and live alone in Europe, earning her own money and meeting new people. Years later she decided and wanted to study English language but not for be a teacher forever…

miércoles, 14 de abril de 2010

Assignment 1: Writers on writing.

4. What are some of the fears these highly successful writers have about writing?

- M. Atwood says that the most difficult issue is beginning to write and convincing herself it is going forward.
-J. Grisham thinks that the most difficult part of writing is laying out the whole book and when he has to face the final dateline.
- I. McEwan says that for him is to catch the reader´s interest otherwise his writing would be a failure.
- P.Auster fears life itself saying that life is unexpected.
- S.Rushdie says that the hardest part is having complete control on a given situation, he needs to keep calm to create a new book otherwise he can´t do what he is suppossed to be doing.

5. What are some of the difficulties they have when they are writing?

Some say to be calm in order to write in the right way, others to work against a final dateline, others facing boredom when writing a novel.


6. What are some of the positive aspects to writing?

Some of them are that it helps you to overcome your own personal fears or problems in real life. Another aspect is that the writer is always taking big risks.


7. Do you feel these authors enjoy being writers? Why?

Yes, they all enjoy being writers, they can´t imagine life without it.


8. Is reading an important facet of writing? Why?

Yes, definetely it is an important part of writing because you develop different skills.


9. In your opinion, what are the 3 most important things which will make your writing successful?

Sharing my thoughts with classmates, I think that first of all we need to have something to say, to put pen to paper, to focus on what you want to say no matter what, to be disciplined in order to spend most of the time laying out your book, to catch the interest of the public so as they keep on reading without leaving the book on the floor.