The victorian age is characterized as practical and materialistic, most of the writers exalt a purely ideal life. It is an idealistic age where the great ideals like truth, justice, love, brotherhood are emphasized by poets, essayists and novelists of the age, Literature of this age tends to come closer to daily life which reflects its practical problems and interests. It becomes a powerful instrument for human progress and the post modernism features advanced science and information technology/cybernetics, it proposes a radical change in the social order. There cannot be one or objective reality.
Some characteristics of the modernist literature are Realistic embodiment of social meanings, Sense of spiritual loneliness, Sense of frustration,Two World Wars' effects on Humanity.
The post.modernism emphasis dreams, drug use, paranoia, no heroes but heroic acts, honesty, constancy and kindness.